We continue to invest in emission reductions to meet increasingly stringent air quality requirements, spending $2.4 billion through 2016 to comply with federal regulations. DTE has completed installation of state-of-the-art emission controls at the Monroe Power Plant, our largest generating plant and fourth largest coal-fired plant in the country.
We accept old appliances for recycling when customers purchase new, more efficient models. In 2016, DTE customers recycled more than 37,000 appliances, saving nearly 38,000 megawatt hours of electricity.
Our Fermi 2 Power Plant has on-site facilities for the management, processing and temporary storage of radioactive waste materials. Water provides a natural radiation barrier and cooling for the used fuel. After seven years in the pool, waste can be moved into large concrete/steel storage containers.
Our largest waste and recycling stream is coal combustion residuals — flyash and gypsum. We recycled 100 percent of our gypsum generated at our Monroe Power Plant.
In the 1940s and '50s, manufactured gas produced from coal and oil was used for lighting, cooking and heating. Natural gas eventually replaced manufactured gas and manufactured gas plants (MGPs) were shut down.
Today, DTE Gas is responsible for a total of 16 MGPs throughout Michigan. Full remediation and closure has been achieved at nine sites, allowing the properties to be developed for a variety of uses.
Lake and river water cool our thermal electric power plants. Once used, water is returned to Michigan's surface waters. In 2016, DTE Energy facilities in Michigan withdrew approximately 1.08 trillion gallons of surface water. These thermal discharges have not been found to adversely affect aquatic ecosystems.